The Blog of John Hewitt

Twelve questions that will help you create your character

Use these questions to help define your characters further:

  • How would I describe this character in a single sentence?
  • What type of personality does this character have?
  • What is this character’s purpose in the story?
  • How is this character different from any other character in the story?
  • What makes this character interesting to readers?
  • What does this character care most about?
  • What are this character’s key physical traits?
  • What is the most important thing that has ever happened to this character?
  • What are the things this character cares the most about?
  • How does this character deal with problems?
  • What would it take to make this character change significantly?
  • What relationship does this character have with the other characters?

Writing elegies and memory poems

Alas, poor Yorick! I knew him, Horatio; a fellow of infinite jest, of most excellent fancy; he hath borne me on his back a thousand times; and now, how abhorred in my imagination it is! My gorge rises at it. Here hung those lips that I have kissed I know not how oft. Where be your gibes now? (Hamlet, V.i)

Writing an Elegy

Poetry has, from its beginning days onward, been a tool of remembrance. From Homer’s Iliad through Tennyson’s The Charge of the Light Brigade to Pinsky’s 9/11, poetry has been used to remember people and events, both heroic and tragic. Poems of this type are called elegies.

As a form, the elegy is very flexible. The term elegy should not be confused with the similar term, eulogy, which is a speech given at a funeral. An elegy is a poem of mourning and reflection. The original elegies were written in elegiac meter. Elegiac meter consists of couplets composed of a line of dactylic hexameter followed by a line of dactylic pentameter. That traditional meter (we will discuss meter in greater depth soon) is no longer required for a poem to be an elegy. All that is required is that it remembers a person’s death or other tragic event such as a battle or a natural disaster.

Poems of this type tend to carry a lot of emotion. The feelings one has about a significant event, especially a tragic one, can be complex and even contradictory. You might mourn a friend or relative but still be angered by the choices they made. You might admire the heroism of battle but recognize its flaws. Poetry is one way to work through those emotions.

When approaching material of this sort, it can be emotionally draining but also cathartic. Many people carry around these emotions and thoughts without ever being able to express them or consciously deal with them. As a poet, you can at least put your thoughts on paper, which allows you to process those thoughts and come to some sort of emotional closure.

Today’s Poetry Assignment

Write an elegy about a person or event that is meaningful to you. You don’t necessarily have to approach the most tragic event in your life. Don’t try to take on an event that is still too difficult for you to deal with. Look for something that you can handle.

Today’s Recommended Poet

Dean Young is a poet whose influence seems to increase with each new work. His poetry tends toward the surreal, but is always insightful and often genuinely funny. His poem Elegy on a Toy Piano is written for fellow poet Kenneth Koch, one of the Twentieth Century’s true greats. Don’t hesitate to read Kenneth Koch, but because my recommendations are based on working poets, please try Dean Young first. He’s still alive and worthy of a long look.

Poems on the web

Books by Dean Young

Basing characters on real people

Basing characters on actual people is a fairly common literary practice. The people around you can be a great source of inspiration. I don’t, however, recommend basing a character on a single person. It can be problematic for the following reasons:

  • If that person finds out, they may not like it. It can hurt a friendship or even get you sued.
  • You may be tempted to recreate moments from their life too closely and not let the plot take its natural course because you know how everything took place. In other words, it can be difficult to stay fictional with a character based on a real person.
  • You might find yourself unwilling to portray the darkest aspects of a character because you don’t want to hurt the real person.

I believe it is a much better idea to base a character on two different people. When you combine two people who share at least a few common traits, you can pick the traits that you want and fictionalize the remaining traits. It is easier to demonstrate this process than explain it, so I’ll give an example.

Turning Two People into One

I have two friends that I believe share some common traits and experiences. There are many links between them, but for the purposes of my story:

  • Both are about forty
  • Both have careers in the computer field
  • Both have worked for their respective employers for over ten years
  • Both enjoy watching and playing games such as baseball, pool, poker and bowling.
  • Both have recently bought new houses with their significant others
  • Both own a lot of electronic equipment and gadgets
  • Both are extroverts

Using these characteristics, I have the base of a character. Now I can use their differences to try to make the character unique and to try to fill the story needs I have for that character. Here are some of my choices.

  • Friend A is married while Friend B lives with his girlfriend. For my purposes, I am going to choose to have the character live with his girlfriend, which will happen during the story rather than at the beginning. This is to contrast him with other characters in my story who are already in long-term relationships.
  • Friend A’s significant other has a five year old son. Friend B has no children. For the purposes of my story it is better for there to be a child, but I want the boy to be older, so that he can interact with another boy I have already added to the story. My character’s significant other will have a twelve year old son.
  • Friend B has strong political views and Friend A does not. I think this will make for an interesting character trait, so my character will have strong political views.
  • Friend A attended a university, Friend B went to a technical school. Friend A works for a university, friend B works in the private sector. I want the character to work in an academic setting, so I am going to have him be a university graduate. I am going to add that he is pursing a master’s degree, which neither friend is doing.
  • Friend A dated prolifically and was married briefly before his current relationship. Friend B did not date much. My character will have an extensive dating history and a past divorce, which will set him apart from other characters in the story.
  • Friend A is very concerned about his looks and has a daily workout routine to maintain them. Friend B is neither in shape nor self-conscious about it. I am going to have the character maintain a workout routine.
  • Friend A is a hard worker who takes his job seriously while Friend B is a decent worker but not the sort of person who takes his work home with him. My character will take this a step further than Friend B, to the point that he has a hard time staying busy at work because so little is required of him.

Using all of these traits I have enough information to create a character who is unique, but still maintains many of the qualities of his real life inspirations. Based on what I’ve decided so far, I have created the character profile below. It has aspects of both my friends, but it creates a unique character that should mesh well with the other characters in my story.

Profile: Larry Parris

Larry is a forty year old database programmer at a university. He has worked for the university since before he graduated fifteen years ago. His has excellent computer skills, but his job is easy and he is so settled in it that few people even understand what he does. He has earned telecommuting rights, so he is often not at work and instead spends his time at the gym or at a nearby bar where he watches sports and bets on horse racing. He keeps his computer, phone and PDA within quick reach so that he can fix a problem if he needs to.

Larry attends at least one class per semester, working on a master’s degree in sociology that he has no real need for, but pursues because he finds it interesting. His conservative libertarian political views often put him at odds with the younger, more left-wing students in the classes he takes. He calls them “the crunchy granola people”.

He is attractive and outgoing, frequently dating the women he meets at the gym or at the bar. This has led to many strange and sometimes embarrassing situations that his friends never let him live down. Most of the time, the women are significantly younger and less educated than him, but he soon meets a woman close to his age who has a twelve year old son.

Larry is a little shy of commitment since his divorce ten years ago, but find himself moving quickly with this woman and bonding with her son. The relationship is not without its problems though, as he finds his loose, carefree lifestyle growing more and more structured and restrictive. He also has to deal with his girlfriend’s emotionally abusive ex-husband.

Essay paper writing guide

The Basics of Essay Writing

General

Outlines

Thesis Statements

Introduction

Types of Introductions

Conclusions

Drafts

Essay Types

The Five Paragraph Essay

The Admissions/Application Essay

The Argumentative Essay

The Cause And Effect Essay

The Classification / Division Essay

The Comparison / Contrast Essay

The Critical Essay

The Definition Essay

The Exploratory/Descriptive Essay

The Expository Essay

The Informal Essay

The Literary Essay

The Narrative Essay

The Personal Essay

The Persuasive Essay

The Research Essay

The Response Essay

The Scholarship Essay

Citation Guides

MLA

APA

Chicago

Turabian

Other Style Guides

Building characters through adversity

Creating fictional characters requires adversity, There are few happy stories in the world. There are happy endings. There are happy characters. Few stories revolve around the good things that happen to people. If they do, there is a downside to the “good things” that happen to them.

Stories are about adversity and conflict. How characters deal with adversity can create comedy, drama, romance, action, and mystery. Without adversity, there is no story to tell.

Creating Fictional Characters Using Physical Adversity

Physical adversity is death, injury, illness and threat. These are the most adverse situations fictional characters (and real people) face. Death or injury can happen to a fictional character or to someone close to them. Death is a universal theme. It dates back to the first stories ever told. The Epic of GilgameshThe Iliad, and The Bible all contain people dealing with death.

Creating Fictional Characters Using Miscommunication and Deception

This is a classic plot complication. One fictional character misunderstands another fictional character or circumstance. All of the characters must deal with the consequences. Miscommunication is a classic Shakespearean theme. Romeo and Juliet die due to miscommunication. King Lear disowns his daughter because of miscommunication. MacBeth believes he is invulnerable due to miscommunication.

Deception is similar to miscommunication, but it involves deliberate lies. While the three witches in MacBeth technically tell MacBeth the truth at all times, Richard III uses both miscommunication and outright lies in his rise to the throne. He does so with malicious glee. He destroys the lives around him. Eventually he is destroyed by his own deceptions.

Creating fictional characters using miscommunication and deception is good, but be careful, you don’t want your characters to seem like idiots. You also don’t want a plot that could easily be resolved if not for a simple miscommunication.

Creating Fictional Characters Using Displacement

Displacement is another popular adversity that fictional characters face. Characters enter a situation in which they are uncomfortable or at odds. This can be as fanciful as Alice wandering through Wonderland. It can be as dramatic as Trisha McFarland lost in the New England forest in Stephen King’s The Girl who Loved Tom Gordon. It can also be as simple as sending an introvert to a party. It is important to note that the displacement works both ways. The focus of a story doesn’t have to be the displaced character. The story can be about the other character’s reactions to the disruption to their lives by the displaced character.

Creating Fictional Characters Using Desire

Every good fictional character has unfulfilled wants and needs. Sometimes they are stated and sometimes they are unstated. One of the classic stories of unfulfilled desire is Dashiell Hammett’s The Maltese Falcon, in which most of the characters are consumed by the desire to own an almost mythical piece of art. Unfulfilled desire is as key to action novels as it is romance novels. The witches’ cryptic messages ignite MacBeth and Lady Macbeth’s desire for power, but it is their desire that dooms them to destruction.

Creating Fictional Characters Using Relationships

Creating fictional characters requires conflict in relationships. Relationship conflicts run a wide spectrum, and are not limited to human relationships. They can extend to animals, nature and environment. Relationship adversity is often the result of the previous adversities, but it is worth a separate category because this is where most resolutions are centered. A fictional character must change the relationship, be changed (or even destroyed) by the relationship, accept the relationship or be doomed to fight the relationship (such as in the Jean Paul Sartre’s No Exit).

Life without Conflict is Boring

There are many other conflicts and types of adversity that a character can run into, but the adversity itself is not the key component of a story. The key is in how your fictional characters react to and deal with adversity. It is difficult for the reader to care whether or not the adversity is overcome unless they care about the characters. It is equally difficult to care about fictional characters that have no complications in their life.

The Pleasantville Dilemma

A perfect example of this phenomenon is the movie Pleasantville. In that movie, two characters are transported from their modern life into a fifties era family sitcom in which everything is pleasant and perfect (Displacement). At first, the fictional characters inside the television show have no adversity to deal with. At that point, they are not fully developed characters and their only interest to the audience is the humor of seeing these happy people through the eyes of the two modern, jaded teenagers. The presence of these two outsiders, however, eventually throws this perfect world into chaos. Soon the characters are plagued by injuries, miscommunication, and deception and especially by unfulfilled desires that grow with each new discovery. Adversity turns these people into interesting fictional characters. The mother, the father, and the soda-shop owner become fully realized people and what happens to them matters to the audience. As happy people these characters were a joke, but in the face of adversity they become the heart and soul of the film.

Adversity is a Tool

The key to creating fictional characters is to use adversity as a tool. Use adversity as a tool for character development rather than using the characters merely to further the action. To do this, you must explore your fictional characters. Not only do you need to develop a clear sense of what decisions they would make normally, you must develop how their thinking process changes or fails to change as a result of their actions. If a fictional character makes the same decision two times and it does not work either time, the character has not learned. This does not mean the character has not developed, just that they have failed to change their actions as a result of their circumstances. This is as much of a character trait as a character changing their actions.

A patriotic character may sacrifice themselves for their country more than once, only to be injured or to lose something important to them. They have repeated the same action, but has their reasons changed? The exploration comes in why they choose to make the same sacrifice again, if it did not help the first time. Are they more resigned to their course or do they start to waver? What thoughts lead them to repeat the same action without reward? On the other hand, a patriot might sacrifice the first time and not the second. This is a major change in thinking, and for the people reading or watching the story, the choices must not only be within character, but they must develop the character.

Accomplishing the development of character through adversity is a challenge for even the most experienced writers. The keys to accomplishing this are:

Know your Characters Well

The more time you spend analyzing your fictional characters and deciding what their thinking process is, the better prepared you will be to decide how they will react to the adversities they face.

Decide how you want your fictional characters to change and how you want them to remain unchanged. If you know how you want your character to develop, then you can adjust your plot accordingly. This does not mean that you tailor the plot to the character. If you want the story to be about blowing up a building or developing a vaccine, then that is your plot. What you want to analyze is how your character would go about accomplishing that task, and what obstacles they would face.

Don’t be Afraid to Change the Circumstances

An idea that seemed good in the planning stage may not always work in execution. Sometimes events must happen to develop a plot but in the writing process your characters might have strayed from your original ideas for them. Take the time to work the conflict through. Sometimes the same event can take place if you change one or two minor details in a story. It is simply a matter of being creative.

Mix Things Up

Some actions are out of character only until a character does it. You may think that your character would act a certain way in a given situation, but sometimes you’ll want to experiment with having them do something else. People are full of contradictions, and they don’t always act the way they think they act. A self-image can be a very deceptive thing.

In the best stories, plot development and character development work together. Rather than sacrificing one to develop the other, each is used to the benefit of the other. It is the proper blending of plot and characters that makes great stories work. When a great story is over, the reader should feel like the distinct way it developed could only have happened with those set of characters, yet they should find that entirely acceptable. While it is OK to think that a character should have dealt with the adversity differently, the reader our audience should not think that that character would have done it differently.